Friday, May 22, 2020

The Justice System Of Criminal Justice Essay - 1354 Words

Introduction One of the pivotal questions being deliberated amongst those within the criminal justice system, society and amongst biblical scholars is that of how do we deal with offenders, there have been copious debates and sentiments on the matter and one, in particular, has been around Restorative and Retributive Justice . Marshall suggests when we are faced with crimes of murder, home invasion, and rape; familiar inanities about hating the sin yet loving the sinner seem inadequate. Anger, resentment, and loathing rise up, and, whatever we believe about love and forgiveness, what we really want is swift retribution.p2 A number of criminal justice experts advocate restorative justice as a possible alternative to the western system of criminal justice which many feels is inadequate, which is largely based on the concept of retribution. Unlike retributive justice that centers on the concept of law breaking guilt, and punishment, restorative justice emphases are on the relationship, reconciliation, and reparation of harm done. It understands crime less as a matter of law breaking than as the infliction of injury or loss on another person â€Å"restorative justice is a peace-making response to crime, Restorative justice, according to, Daniel Van Ness, it brings â€Å"victims, offenders and the community together with government in repairing injuries caused by crime† Justice Justice and love are often seen as opposites or even opposing values and aims. On the one hand,Show MoreRelatedJustice Systems And The Criminal Justice System Essay1248 Words   |  5 PagesThe criminal justice system is a complex and often uncoordinated system that operates by enforcing the law and seeking justice across countless jurisdictions. It is comprised of many separate agencies including agencies at the federal, state, and local level. Each agency has its own function and goals while operating at different levels of government. The agencies also represent different concerns and values of the public, creating a fragmented system rather than a monolithic, unified system. A monolithicRead MoreJustice And The Criminal Justice System Essay1918 Words   |  8 PagesWhen it comes to the criminal justice system, there is often a gray area between what is considered fair and what is just, with these concepts many times having a connection. Furthermore, justice and fairness are sub jective and many times individuals’ concept of what is fair or just differ. Throughout a recent court case involving a Stanford University swimmer being charged with rape, that issue became well evident. This case involved a Stanford student, Brock Turner, being charged with sexuallyRead MoreRestorative Justice : The Criminal Justice System987 Words   |  4 Pagesconcept in the criminal justice arena, restorative justice has become a popular tool in the fields of both victimology and criminology (Doble Greene, 2000). According to Doble Greene, (2000) Restorative justice has been defined as: â€Å"A theory of justice that emphasizes repairing the harm caused or revealed by criminal behavior. It is best accomplished through cooperative processes that include all stakeholders.† Unlike the traditional criminal justice system, restorative justice main focus isRead MoreThe Criminal Justice System1308 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿Criminal Justice System The criminal justice system refers to the way in which a society chooses to handle all aspects of crime and punishment. In the Western world, particularly the United States, the criminal justice system is an official governmental system that focuses on crime and punishment, though some societies still incorporate a significant amount of informal social controls into their criminal justice systems. The criminal justice system covers everything from crime-prevention andRead MoreCriminal Justice System1524 Words   |  7 Pagesfor the Criminal Justice System is to reduce the crime and the fire of crime. In order to achieve this it is using different agencies and the major of them are the Police, Prosecution, Courts, Prisons and Probation. They all are operating in synchrony for achieving their legal responsibilities and particularly for reducing the level of crime. The aim of this essay specifically is to discuss the functions of the police and how they actually fit with the objective s of the Criminal Justice System as aRead MoreCriminal Justice And The Juvenile Justice System1689 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction to Criminal Justice Criminal Justice is such a broad subject and workforce. At this point in time criminal justice is needed more than ever in America and the world as we know it today. The criminal justice system has improved more and more throughout history by changing something as simple as law enforcement officer’s purpose and who they are taking orders from. The objective of this analysis is to break down these three criminal justice subjects: the juvenile justice system, prison lifeRead MoreThe On The Criminal Justice System984 Words   |  4 PagesGarland (2001), view on â€Å"the criminal justice system in America was created to keep communities safe, to respect and restore victims, and to return offenders who leave prison to be self-sufficient and law-abiding. Treatment simply did not work either by therapy or broader social programs and became is a monumental failure that our states and nation can no longer afford† (p.61) Garland (2001) stated â€Å"that the collapse of faith in our correction system began a wave of demoralization that underminedRead MoreThe Criminal Justice System720 Words   |  3 Pages Victims usually adopt a subsidiary role in the courts, compared to the accused or offender (Booth, 2016). Victim-focused law reforms are open to many jurisdictions throughout Australia, and majority of systems which follow the adversarial nature of proceedings (Garkawe, 2007). The justice system aims to enforce a therapeutic structure, however, in some instances this fails to be upheld for the victim. In a sentencing hearing, an offender’s mitigating factors may reduce their sentence, thereforeRead MoreThe Criminal Justice System1667 Words   |  7 PagesThe criminal justice system has for long been faced by a lot of caseloads, an issue which has been heaping a lot of pressure on the stakeholders.  Ã‚  The cause of increased workload is lack of adequate resources to deal with the caseload. Some people have argued that the only way to deal with the overloads is to provide more money to the criminal justice systems so that everyone involved will be able to do the required tas ks and in so doing reduce the number of cases while scholars think that the onlyRead MoreThe Criminal Justice System1454 Words   |  6 Pages Our Criminal Justice System is far from perfect but it has fulfilled its design by becoming a living system so to speak. Our system is predicated upon discretion from start to finish whereas the first step in the process lies with the contacting officer. Once lawful presence has been established and probable cause for contact can be clearly articulated, the decision to make that contact rests solely with that officer. Of course, each department utilizes a form of controlled discretion, ensuring

Thursday, May 7, 2020

China’s Education System - 1434 Words

Education is the process of learning and acquiring knowledge at school from a teacher, receiving knowledge at home from a parent, a family member, and even friend. Education is a key that allows people to move up in the world, seek better jobs, and succeed in life. Education is one factor that affects job positions people hold, advance in their further career, the income they make, and the title they hold. The more educated a person is, the more prestige and power that person holds. Education improves the quality of life, reduces ignorance, and exposes frontiers and opportunities not previously handled. Education also focuses on the values, attitudes and behaviors that enable individuals to learn to live together in a world characterized†¦show more content†¦The similarities include administering a nationwide exam given to all the students. All students are equally evaluated based on these scores. The test is used to determine which university students are able to attend. Th ere are also significant differences between these exams. In America the exams are called the SAT or the ACT. In China it is named Gaokao. The Gaokao test is taken very seriously. This test is taken for multiple-days. Parents rent hotel rooms nearby so their student can have a quiet lunch and take a nap. Some Chinese students go insane for this exam. They study for the Gaokao while hooked up to IV drips. The IV drips contain amino acids which would provide the students with extra energy (Kristof). This would definitely never be allowed in U.S. And lastly, merit pay is different in China than U.S. The Chinese believe in merit pay and in using student test scores for teacher evaluation. For example, when the 9th graders leave middle school they are tested to see which high school they are qualified to attend. Since the same teachers have had those students for three years, they compare their entry score to their exit score. The classes that showed the most academic gain resulted i n that banzhuren receiving a bonus that might range from 3000 Yuan to 6000 Yuan (one month or two months pay). The same is true at the high school level. This is not the case in America. Teachers are evaluated through principals attending the classroom setting and/orShow MoreRelatedWho s Afraid Of The Big Bad Dragon1448 Words   |  6 PagesBad Dragon? : Why China Has the Best (and Worst) Education System in the World, published by John Wiley Sons on August 14, 2014, the author, Yong Zhao, states that while China gets the highest test scores on the PISA exam, parents in China often send their children to western schools. In short Yong Zhao, a Chinese native who was born in Sichuan, claims that Western countries, Britain and America, should not try and adopt China’s education system for many reasons. I my opinion this book did notRead MoreChinas Emergence as a Superpower1552 Words   |  7 PagesStates. But the 21st century belongs to China, -- Jim Rogers, Hedge fund manager Chinas population is one of the greatest natural resources on the planet. Its citizens are becoming more educated, diligent, aspiring and comprise nearly a quarter of the worlds population. The combination of Chinas massive size and rapid modernization is creating the framework for an emerging superpower. Chinas growing economy is not only gaining international prestige, but its confidence has soaredRead MoreDifference Between China and Canada Education819 Words   |  4 PagesDisadvantages of China’s Education comparing with Canada’s Education A country’s economic system decides its education system. Since China and Canada have different economic systems, China is developing on a diversified ownership economy, while Canada is running its economy by pure capitalism. It is obvious two different education systems run in those two countries respectively. And from my personal experience and some hearing from my friends, I found five main disadvantages of China’s education comparingRead MoreChina s Struggle For Status1274 Words   |  6 PagesChinese international relations and historian Yong Deng’s latest novel, China’s Struggle for Status, analyzes China’s rise in power and it’s future trajectory according to his research. The novel was released during what many consider the peak of China’s growth, or at least when the world was witnessing the prosperity of their country, the 2008 Beijing Olympics. The novel strays away from the status quo of analyzing China’s rise, and rather focuses more on the reasons behind why China would wantRead MoreChinas Emergence As A Superpower Essay1586 Words   |  7 PagesStates. But the 21st century belongs to China, -- Jim Rogers, Hedge fund manager Chinas population is one of the greatest natural resources on the planet. Its citizens are becoming more educated, diligent, aspiring and comprise nearly a quarter of the worlds population. The combination of Chinas massive size and rapid modernization is creating the framework for an emerging superpower. Chinas growing economy is not only gaining international prestige, but its confidence has soaredRead MoreThe Growth Of China s Consumption963 Words   |  4 PagesIn order to increase China’s consumption, some current literatures come up with several policy suggestions to reduce China’s high savings rate and therefore stimulate China’s consumption. Anderson (2007) points out that the bulk of excess savings has come from Chinese firms as they â€Å"expropriate† market share and profits from the rest of the world. This implies that the sudden appearance of China’s imbalance over the past few years, the sharply rising trade surplus and the implied dramatic increaseRead MoreSimilarities And Differences Between China And Australia1236 Words   |  5 Pagesperiod of time. China’s GDP is significantly larger than Australia’s, measuring 9.24 trillion $USD as of 2013, while Australia’s GDP was 1.56 trillion $USD the same year. Before the change to a socialist market, the economic policy at the time didn’t allow for the benefits of a market economy, such as increased efficiency because of competition and motivation and more innovation. Despite China’s large GDP, the GDP/Capita shows a more accurate representation of income distribution. China’s GDP/Capita inRead MoreChina s Consumption And Its Consumption768 Words   |  4 Pages In order to increase China’s consumption, it is important to figure out feasible policies that the Chinese government could implement to stimulate its consumption efficiently. Anderson (2007) points out China’s firms’ expropriate market share and profits from other countries cause China’s excess savings. Therefore, China’s imbalance economy does not result from low consumptions, but results from Chinese companies’ high profits and their rising savings. The banking system data shows that the householdRead MoreChina s Rule Under Legalism And Launching A Military Campaign875 Words   |  4 Pagesexperienced changes in its political system in terms of the dissimilar ruling styles of different leaders, the rule under Legalism, and the in fluence of philosophical thinking like Daoism. These changes, influenced by aspects of the world and its own region, shaped China into its Classical state. In contrast, the concept of the Mandate of Heaven, the civil service system, and the significance of unity through a strong central government remained constant throughout China’s Classical period. These continuitiesRead MoreThe Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in China1536 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"Cultural Revolution† had been a failed attempt at making China a stronger country. This revolution had destroyed China’s rich history. The period from 1966 to 1969 had been terrifying years in which the Red Guards used violence to purge China of any anti- communist sources. Mao Zedong had led the violence and turmoil in China after his failed attempt at the Great Leap Forward. He relied on China’s youth to change the traditional customs and ideas. The students carried the Cultural Revolution forward and

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Is Victor Frankenstein the Modern Prometheus Free Essays

Is Victor Frankenstein the modern Prometheus? Mary Shelley’s purpose in the subtitle of her book, Frankenstein; or, the modern Prometheus is to compare Victor Frankenstein and Prometheus, son of Zeus. By showing many similarities between the two, she has solid reasoning that Dr. Frankenstein is, in many ways, the â€Å"modern Prometheus. We will write a custom essay sample on Is Victor Frankenstein the Modern Prometheus? or any similar topic only for you Order Now † Although both main characters create a problem they have no control over, they learn their lesson of tampering with the law of nature. It takes time, punishment, and tests for the both of them to understand their wrongdoings. Shelley’s book shows many similarities between Victor and Prometheus. In the beginning we are led to believe that Victor is a scientist who, through experiment and analysis, has the ability to re-create life. By using metamorphosis he uses old cadaver body parts to create an oversized and grotesque creature (Shelley, par. 91). Like Prometheus, Frankenstein created something he had no power or control over. Prometheus stole fire from the gods and gave it to humans, not only once but twice. In doing so, they both went against all laws of nature. While Victor Frankenstein created a nonhuman creature and Prometheus stole fire from the gods they were both punished very severely. After Dr. Frankenstein brought his creature to life, out of disgust, he ran away. â€Å"How can I describe my emotions at this catastrophe, or how delineate the wretch whom with such infinite pains and care I had endeavored to form? † (Shelley, par. 121). Frankenstein could not stand the sight of his creation. Looking at it made him queasy and ill. The monster’s oversized body and unsightly proportions brought Victor much agony. The creature, feeling abandoned, turned to rage and attacked Victor’s loved ones. His first victim was William Frankenstein, Victor’s beloved brother. Giving Victor little time to repair from his tragic loss, the creature attacked again. This time he lost his best friend, Henry Clerval. During these catastrophic events, Victor knew this was his fault. He created a monster who would continue hurting him by taking the life of the people he cared most about. The final death of Victor’s family was his darling wife, Elizabeth. The creature killed her out of revenge because Frankenstein would not finish the female companion he asked to be made. Frankenstein lost the people closest to him while Prometheus was punished in a very different yet, equal way. Prometheus felt that humans should be superior to the gods. Having more power and the ability to make tools and weapons, he gave them fire. Zeus was furious about this, seeing that he had taken fire away from them before. When Prometheus gave fire to man the first time, Zeus was enraged with anger and explained to Prometheus that fire was not a power man should hold. Defying Zeus, Prometheus gave it back to man anyways. This was not a gift Prometheus could bestow upon humans after it was taken away once. Later punished for his actions, he was sentenced to be chained to a rock with the company of an eagle, hungry for his liver. The eager bird picked at Prometheus’ liver each day as the sun would dissipate. Overnight his liver would grow back but he would endure this agonizing and excruciating pain all over again. Both men experienced brutal punishment. Prometheus was tortured physically, while Victor was hurt on an emotional level. After their punishment, both Dr. Frankenstein and Prometheus were given opportunities to prove themselves. The creature went to Victor and asked him to make a female companion. After seeing how compassionate the people he observed were, the creature wanted someone to share those feelings with. I demand a creature of another sex, but as hideous as myself†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (â€Å"National library of,† 1998). Dr. Frankenstein began assembling the body parts to build a female creature. It took him months, but before he finished he decided against it. He thought about how he could not control the creature he already built. The thought of there being two of them out there in the world sickened him. Victor was tested by having the opportunity to craft a second monster. By refusing to do so, he finally learned that trying to play God is not a role to be taken lightly. After Dr. Frankenstein denied the creature a mate, he soon realized this was a good thing. Prometheus was tested in a similar manner. His father, Zeus, presented Prometheus with two options. As there was a prophecy that a child of Zeus would one day dethrone him, Prometheus, who had the gift of foresight, could tell Zeus the mother of the child who would do this to him. His second option was put into two parts, there had to be an immortal that was willing to die for him, as well as a human who could kill the eagle and break Prometheus’ chains. Chiron, the centaur who trained Hercules, was immortal and offered to give up his life for the sake of Prometheus. Hercules executed the eagle and broke the chains (â€Å"The creation of,†). Shelley used the resemblance between Victor Frankenstein and Prometheus in her book. By showing how these characters are alike in different aspects, she demonstrated how Dr. Frankenstein is indeed, the modern Prometheus. Both men took on the role of playing God by creating problems they could not manage. Even more so, they both attempted something only God could determine or have power over. While Victor Frankenstein created a monster out of cadaver parts, Prometheus disobeyed the Gods by giving man the power of fire. Each of them, being punished for doing so, learned their lesson. Shelley’s character of Victor shares similar traits as Prometheus. They were both very daring and audacious. Both men had the ambition to create; though it did not work in their favor it illustrated their likeness. Mary Shelley portrays Victor as a man who went against God and the law of nature. Similar to Prometheus, Frankenstein was very head strong and unfortunately for both men it was too late to repair the damage they had committed. Dr. Victor Frankenstein is indefinitely, the modern Prometheus. Reference Page Shelley, M. (1818). Frankenstein; or, the modern Prometheus. London, England: Lackington, Hughes, Harding, Mavor, Jones Publishing House. Retrieved from http://www. gutenberg. org/files/41445/41445-h/41445-h. htm The creation of man by prometheus. (n. d. ). Retrieved from http://www. greekmythology. com/Myths/The_Myths/Creation_of_Man_by_Prometheus/creation_of_man_by_prometheus. html National library of medicine. (1998, February 13). Retrieved from http://www. nlm. nih. gov/frankenstein/preface. html How to cite Is Victor Frankenstein the Modern Prometheus?, Papers

Monday, April 27, 2020

Social Psychology Myer Ed 10 Essay Example

Social Psychology: Myer Ed 10 Paper Study Guide†section 2 PS 261 Chapter 5 Myer Ed 10 o What are some ways that cultures differ in social norms? What are some norms that are similar? Differences Expressiveness o People may view others as warm and inviting, or cold and distant, based on where they are from Punctuality o North Americans are typically early o Concept of brown time and Arab time Rule breaking o People are more apt to break rules, when they see rules being broken Personal space o Cultures closer to the equator prefer more touching, further from the equator want more personal space and distance 0 Similarities o Friendship Eye contact when talking Keeping secrets Privacy Trait dimensions Describe themselves using the Big 5 Stable Outgoing Open Agreeable Conscientious Social belief BIG 5†social beliefs Cynicism Social complexity Reward for application Spirituality Fate control Status Higher status people talk with higher status people Incest Incest is bad War Identifiable uniforms Humane treatment of prisoners Surrender techniques o In what ways do men and women i d ffer in connectedness, social dominance, aggression, and sexuality? 0 Women More connected Focus on relationships- relational terms Are more intimate Welcome help from others Are more empathetic Share their lives more Make better friends More caretaking Smile more Buy more cards and gifts Express emotions better (verbal and non-verbal) Sexuality Prefer affection Prefer romance Aggression relational aggression and gossip Men More independent More socially dominant More socially dominant Make more money Preserve group inequalities Gravitate toward Jobs that increase inequalities Lead groups more Communicate with social power Express dominance in writing More supportive of violence Take more risks Initiate darling Do more driving Want more sex Enjoy casual sex more We will write a custom essay sample on Social Psychology: Myer Ed 10 specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Social Psychology: Myer Ed 10 specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Social Psychology: Myer Ed 10 specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Initiate sex more Fantasize about sex more Spend more money for sex Prefer more sexual variety Are less successful at celibacy Refuse sex less often physical aggression and killing Chapter 6 What factors contribute to conformity? When groups of more than 3 are present If the group is unanimous If not, there is a reduced chance for that person to conform 0 Group cohesion Status of the person modeling the behavior Higher status†greater likelihood of conformity In public People conform when their responses are publicized If a person has a prior commitment to a thought or behavior, she will not conform What factors contribute to obedience? Victims distance If you cannot see the victim, you will have less of a connection with them, and are more apt to be obedient 0 Closeness and legitimacy of authority The bigger the authority, and the more legit he is, the more you obey If the authority fgure is there, you obey 0 Institutional authority If the place you are at is a big named place, you are more likely to obey the officials there Chapter 7 o When will an audience be persuaded via the central route? The peripheral route? 0 Central Interested people focus on the subject and respond to that argument oFavorably f its strong o Countering if its weak 0 Peripheral (faster) Incidental cues o Attractiveness of the speaker, product, etc. Heuristics o Quick Judgments o Elements of persuasion, and how does each attitude/behavior change via the central and peripheral route? Elements (communication, message, channel of communication, and audience) OCentral route Communicator Credible Knowledgeable Trustworthy Message route Rational arguments Large discrepancy (credible) Two-sided arguments (disagree) Channel of communication Written (complex messages) Audience Motivated and Able Unhappy High need for cognition Peripheral Non-credible (sleeper effect) Appears to be an expert Speaks confidently Attractive Similar (values and way of life) Message Positive messages A large amount of information One-sided arguments Channel Audio or Video (easier messages) Passive Reception (clich? ©s) Positive mood Unconcerned unmotivated / uninvolved Distracted Two sided issues Primacy First message seems more persuasive Recency If there is a gap between arguments, then second message is more persuasive, however o Complexity 0 More: face to face, print 0 Less: mass media Chapter 8 o What is social facilitation, and why does it occur in front of other? The tendency for people to perform simple or well learned complex tasks in front of others 0 Strengthening dominant responses in the presence of others Arousal facilitates dominant responses, and easy tasks are dominant. Evaluation apprehension Factors that contribute to social loafing Groups size Lack of individual identity Evaluation apprehension Factors that contribute to group polarization Discussion Comparison with others Social comparison Pluralistic ignorance Groups of like-minded people Factors that contribute to group think group cohesiveness structural faults insulation of the group lack of impartial leadership lack of norms requiring methodological procedures homogeneity of members social backgrounds and ideology situational context When does the minority influence the majority? Minorities that speak up can increase the majoritys doubts and prompt it to consider more alternatives Leads to better and more creative decisions 0 Consistent and persistent in views Self confidence Ability to attract defections from the majority Task and social leadership o Press towards goals and exude self-confidence can gain trust and inspire others to follow Social Psychology Myer Ed 10 Essay Example Social Psychology: Myer Ed 10 Paper Study Guide†section 2 PS 261 Chapter 5 Myer Ed 10 o What are some ways that cultures differ in social norms? What are some norms that are similar? Differences Expressiveness o People may view others as warm and inviting, or cold and distant, based on where they are from Punctuality o North Americans are typically early o Concept of brown time and Arab time Rule breaking o People are more apt to break rules, when they see rules being broken Personal space o Cultures closer to the equator prefer more touching, further from the equator want more personal space and distance 0 Similarities o Friendship Eye contact when talking Keeping secrets Privacy Trait dimensions Describe themselves using the Big 5 Stable Outgoing Open Agreeable Conscientious Social belief BIG 5†social beliefs Cynicism Social complexity Reward for application Spirituality Fate control Status Higher status people talk with higher status people Incest Incest is bad War Identifiable uniforms Humane treatment of prisoners Surrender techniques o In what ways do men and women i d ffer in connectedness, social dominance, aggression, and sexuality? 0 Women More connected Focus on relationships- relational terms Are more intimate Welcome help from others Are more empathetic Share their lives more Make better friends More caretaking Smile more Buy more cards and gifts Express emotions better (verbal and non-verbal) Sexuality Prefer affection Prefer romance Aggression relational aggression and gossip Men More independent More socially dominant More socially dominant Make more money Preserve group inequalities Gravitate toward Jobs that increase inequalities Lead groups more Communicate with social power Express dominance in writing More supportive of violence Take more risks Initiate darling Do more driving Want more sex Enjoy casual sex more We will write a custom essay sample on Social Psychology: Myer Ed 10 specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Social Psychology: Myer Ed 10 specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Social Psychology: Myer Ed 10 specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Initiate sex more Fantasize about sex more Spend more money for sex Prefer more sexual variety Are less successful at celibacy Refuse sex less often physical aggression and killing Chapter 6 What factors contribute to conformity? When groups of more than 3 are present If the group is unanimous If not, there is a reduced chance for that person to conform 0 Group cohesion Status of the person modeling the behavior Higher status†greater likelihood of conformity In public People conform when their responses are publicized If a person has a prior commitment to a thought or behavior, she will not conform What factors contribute to obedience? Victims distance If you cannot see the victim, you will have less of a connection with them, and are more apt to be obedient 0 Closeness and legitimacy of authority The bigger the authority, and the more legit he is, the more you obey If the authority fgure is there, you obey 0 Institutional authority If the place you are at is a big named place, you are more likely to obey the officials there Chapter 7 o When will an audience be persuaded via the central route? The peripheral route? 0 Central Interested people focus on the subject and respond to that argument oFavorably f its strong o Countering if its weak 0 Peripheral (faster) Incidental cues o Attractiveness of the speaker, product, etc. Heuristics o Quick Judgments o Elements of persuasion, and how does each attitude/behavior change via the central and peripheral route? Elements (communication, message, channel of communication, and audience) OCentral route Communicator Credible Knowledgeable Trustworthy Message route Rational arguments Large discrepancy (credible) Two-sided arguments (disagree) Channel of communication Written (complex messages) Audience Motivated and Able Unhappy High need for cognition Peripheral Non-credible (sleeper effect) Appears to be an expert Speaks confidently Attractive Similar (values and way of life) Message Positive messages A large amount of information One-sided arguments Channel Audio or Video (easier messages) Passive Reception (clich? ©s) Positive mood Unconcerned unmotivated / uninvolved Distracted Two sided issues Primacy First message seems more persuasive Recency If there is a gap between arguments, then second message is more persuasive, however o Complexity 0 More: face to face, print 0 Less: mass media Chapter 8 o What is social facilitation, and why does it occur in front of other? The tendency for people to perform simple or well learned complex tasks in front of others 0 Strengthening dominant responses in the presence of others Arousal facilitates dominant responses, and easy tasks are dominant. Evaluation apprehension Factors that contribute to social loafing Groups size Lack of individual identity Evaluation apprehension Factors that contribute to group polarization Discussion Comparison with others Social comparison Pluralistic ignorance Groups of like-minded people Factors that contribute to group think group cohesiveness structural faults insulation of the group lack of impartial leadership lack of norms requiring methodological procedures homogeneity of members social backgrounds and ideology situational context When does the minority influence the majority? Minorities that speak up can increase the majoritys doubts and prompt it to consider more alternatives Leads to better and more creative decisions 0 Consistent and persistent in views Self confidence Ability to attract defections from the majority Task and social leadership o Press towards goals and exude self-confidence can gain trust and inspire others to follow

Thursday, March 19, 2020

How to Calculate Powerball Odds

How to Calculate Powerball Odds Powerball is a multistate lottery that is quite popular due to its multimillion-dollar jackpots. Some of these jackpots reach values that are well over $100 million. An interesting quest ion from a probabilistic  sense is, â€Å"How are the odds calculated on the likelihood of winning Powerball?† The Rules First we will examine the rules of Powerball as it is currently configured. During each drawing, two drums full of balls are thoroughly mixed and randomized. The first drum contains white balls numbered 1 to 59. Five are drawn without replacement from this drum. The second drum has red balls that are numbered from 1 to 35. One of these is drawn. The object is to match as many of these numbers as possible. The Prizes The full jackpot is won when all six numbers selected by a player match perfectly with the balls that are drawn. There are prizes with lesser values for partial matching, for a total of nine different ways to win some dollar amount from Powerball. These ways of winning are: Matching all five white balls and the red ball wins the grand prize jackpot. The value of this varies depending upon how long it has been since someone has won this grand prize.Matching all five white balls but not the red ball wins $1,000,000.Matching exactly four of the five white balls and the red ball wins $10,000.Matching exactly four of the five white balls but not the red ball wins $100.Matching exactly three of the five white balls and the red ball wins $100.Matching exactly three of the five white balls but not the red ball wins $7.Matching exactly two of the five white balls and the red ball wins $7.Matching exactly one of the five white balls and the red ball wins $4.Matching just the red ball but none of the white balls wins $4. We will look at how to calculate each of these probabilities. Throughout these calculations, it is important to note that the order of how the balls come out of the drum is not important. The only thing that matters is the set of balls that are drawn. For this reason our calculations involve combinations and not permutations. Also useful in every calculation below is the total number of combinations that can be drawn. We have five selected from the 59 white balls, or using the notation for combinations, C(59, 5) 5,006,386 ways for this to occur. There are 35 ways to select the red ball, resulting in 35 x 5,006,386 175,223,510 possible selections. Jackpot Although the jackpot of matching all six balls is the most difficult to obtain, it is the easiest probability to calculate. Out of the multitude of 175,223,510 possible selections, there is exactly one way to win the jackpot. Thus the probability that a particular ticket wins the jackpot is 1/175,223,510. Five White Balls To win $1,000,000 we need to match the five white balls, but not the red one. There is only one way to match all five. There are 34 ways to not match the red ball. So the probability of winning $1,000,000 is 34/175,223,510, or approximately 1/5,153,633. Four White Balls and One Red For a prize of $10,000, we must match four of the five white balls and the red one. There are C(5,4) 5 ways to match four of the five. The fifth ball must be one of the remaining 54 that were not drawn, and so there are C(54, 1) 54 ways for this to happen. There is only 1 way to match the red ball. This means that there are 5 x 54 x 1 270 ways to match exactly four white balls and the red one, giving a probability of 270/175,223,510, or approximately 1/648,976. Four White Balls and No Red One way to win a prize of $100 is to match four of the five white balls and not match the red one. As in the previous case, there are C(5,4) 5 ways to match four of the five. The fifth ball must be one of the remaining 54 that were not drawn, and so there are C(54, 1) 54 ways for this to happen. This time, there are 34 ways to not match the red ball. This means that there are 5 x 54 x 34 9180 ways to match exactly four white balls but not the red one, giving a probability of 9180/175,223,510, or approximately 1/19,088. Three White Balls and One Red Another way to win a prize of $100 is to match exactly three of the five white balls and also match the red one. There are C(5,3) 10 ways to match three of the five. The remaining white balls must be one of the remaining 54 that were not drawn, and so there are C(54, 2) 1431 ways for this to happen. There is one way to match the red ball. This means that there are 10 x 1431 x 1 14,310 ways to match exactly three white balls and the red one, giving a probability of 14,310/175,223,510, or approximately 1/12,245. Three White Balls and No Red One way to win a prize of $7 is to match exactly three of the five white balls and not match the red one. There are C(5,3) 10 ways to match three of the five. The remaining white balls must be one of the remaining 54 that were not drawn, and so there are C(54, 2) 1431 ways for this to happen. This time there are 34 ways to not match the red ball. This means that there are 10 x 1431 x 34 486,540 ways to match exactly three white balls but not the red one, giving a probability of 486,540/175,223,510, or approximately 1/360. Two White Balls and One Red Another way to win a prize of $7 is to match exactly two of the five white balls and also match the red one. There are C(5,2) 10 ways to match two of the five. The remaining white balls must be one of the remaining 54 that were not drawn, and so there are C(54, 3) 24,804 ways for this to happen. There is one way to match the red ball. This means that there are 10 x 24,804 x 1 248,040 ways to match exactly two white balls and the red one, giving a probability of 248,040/175,223,510, or approximately 1/706. One White Ball and One Red One way to win a prize of $4 is to match exactly one of the five white balls and also match the red one. There are C(5,4) 5 ways to match one of the five. The remaining white balls must be one of the remaining 54 that were not drawn, and so there are C(54, 4) 316,251 ways for this to happen. There is one way to match the red ball. This means that there are 5 x 316,251 x1 1,581,255 ways to match exactly one white ball and the red one, giving a probability of 1,581,255/175,223,510, or approximately 1/111. One Red Ball Another way to win a prize of $4 is to match none of the five white balls but match the red one. There are 54 balls that are not any of the five selected, and we have C(54, 5) 3,162,510 ways for this to happen. There is one way to match the red ball. This means that there are 3,162,510 ways to match none of the balls except for the red one, giving a probability of 3,162,510/175,223,510, or approximately 1/55. This case is somewhat counterintuitive. There are 36 red balls, so we may think that the probability of matching one of them would be 1/36. However, this neglects the other conditions imposed by the white balls. Many combinations involving the correct red ball also include matches on some of the white balls as well.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Nissan Altima Electric Mode Hybrid Car Question

Nissan Altima Electric Mode Hybrid Car Question Hello Christine and Scott, I was very relieved to find your pages under About.com and find out I could email you. A few weeks ago we purchased a 2008 Nissan Altima Hybrid and recently we noticed something that has us worried: the gasoline engine kicks on a few seconds after starting the car and while the car is still in PARK. It stays on EV MODE for only the first few seconds. This is not what we expected! We thought (from research) that the high voltage battery would have total control at startup, low speeds, and when not moving (at a stop sign /red light). In other words, NO GASOLINE being used at these times. EV MODE the whole time! We also observed: 1. After we shift to D, DRIVE, it happens again every time the vehicle comes to a full stop while at a stop sign or red light and were not moving for more than a few seconds. 2. The engine stays on for at least a minute and then shuts off, EV MODE resumes and all is quiet until I start moving and accelerating. 3. This behavior seems to happen when the engine is cold, in other words, when it hasnt been used for hours (e.g. first drive in the morning) and keeps happening for about 1/2 hour or so during that first drive. After 1/2 hour or so, this stops happening. In other words, the EV MODE sign comes on and STAYS ON the whole time the car is stopped (idle) at a stop sign/red traffic light or while the car is in PARK but still on. This is what we thought would ALWAYS happen! 4. There is one exception to what I just said in item 3 above. Today for the first time, while at a red light, and after the car went into EV MODE, the engine kicked on even though I had just driven the car for at least one hour at high speeds on highway. Is something wrong with my car? I noticed on your website that you own your own 2008 Nissan Hybrid. Please tell me whats happening with yours. At first my husband thought that this was due to the cold weather (under 40 degrees). But today, the temperature was at 48 degrees and it still didnt stay in EV MODE at startup. Please help. I am afraid this might be a defective car. Dora PS. Yesterday I drove the car to the dealer and the salesperson that sold us the car told us that he has seen it happen before and that it is normal. He even had me drive another hybrid (2007) that had not been sold yet and sure enough, seconds after the car started, the EV MODE signal disappeared and the engine started EVEN THOUGH I was still in park mode. I dont know whether to believe him or not. I also dont find any info on manual to either identify this behavior as normal or not normal. Hey Dora, Thanks for writing - good questions. We understand your concerns. No worries – it sounds as if your 2008 Altima Hybrid is working perfectly normally. Your husband is right - it does have a lot to do with the cold temperatures, and there actually are several conditions that will make the engine on your car run, regardless of your input. They are: State of battery charge Temperature of the engine and hybrid components Ambient air temperature When you start the car, it will usually start the engine after just a few seconds, even if its been only a few hours since youve last driven it. The computer does this automatically to warm the engine, hybrid battery and associated hybrid components. Under mild weather conditions, the engine should shut off after just a few minutes, but when it’s colder out, it could take substantially longer- it also depends upon the amount of charge left in the hybrid battery. If it’s on the low side, the engine may continue running to charge the battery up to full capacity. Also, and this is especially true in the winter (and if you are using the heater and/or the defroster a lot), the engine will run longer. The engine has to run to warm the cabin- and the higher you have the heat set (and the longer it’s on), the more the engine will run. If you have electrically heated seats, using those can help minimize the need to heat the cabin air as much, thus minimizing the engine ru nning time also. Even if you are stopped for a minute or more at a traffic light and the car is in EV mode, if any of these conditions come up (low battery, car needing heat), the engine will start. Again, all of this is normal. You’ll notice as we get into spring and early summer (and you won’t be needing the heat/defroster as much), everything will come up to operating temperature quicker and the Altima Hybrid will stay in EV mode much longer. In the summertime when it gets really hot and you’re using the AC a lot, you could notice that it runs the engine more. The AC compressor runs off electricity, so you may find the engine kicks on more often to keep the battery charged. Just bear in mind that this is a hybrid electric car and is reliant upon the gasoline engine to keep the entire system up and running. Even though you can drive in electric mode, it’s still more of an assistant than a main power source. Your Altima uses Toyota’s Synergy Drive System- in our opinion, it is the best one available. As you get used to this car, we bet you’ll not only be able to maximize the EV mode driving (and fuel economy), but come to love it as well. For your reference, here’s an article we wrote about hybrids and cold temps, and some info about obtaining the best mileage from your hybrid via hypermiling. (Yep, Scott hypermiled in the Altima Hybrid- look what it can do. Thanks for visiting our site and writing- please feel free to let us know if you have any more questions. Best regards, Christine Scott

Saturday, February 15, 2020

To what extent do you agree with the view that HRM is probably the Essay

To what extent do you agree with the view that HRM is probably the most culturally sensitive of all managerial functional areas - Essay Example Furthermore, an organization’s socio-cultural environment affects the adaptation of Human Resource Management Strategies and different cultural contexts pose different challenges. For firms doing business in multicultural environments or generally across cultures parochial views to management of human resources can proof disastrous. This paper looks into the strong interrelationship that exists between Human Resource Management (HRM) and people’s culture. Theories that have been developed to explain the phenomenon are also to be explored. Today’s business environment has taken a turn to be one that is highly globalised meaning that a firm operating in a certain area or country, it does not necessarily expect to have people of that area only or even that country alone (Lawson & Shen 1998). This therefore stipulates that such kind of an organization should expect to have a workforce that is multiethnic or exhibiting variations in cultural backgrounds. This hereby calls for the HR Manager or the management to embrace this fact so as to ensure survival in the increasingly competitive and volatile global business environment. Just but to give an example is the tendency where firms from the developed countries set camp in developing countries and move ahead to adopt standard HRM approaches to their new workforce. This kind of approach tends to undermine the cultural reality of the people and these strategies before long crumble to the management’s amazement. This not withstanding, knowledge of the target mark et’s culture is essential in ensuring a firm’s survival. Culture in this regard is the collective social occurrence that goes on to affect the HRM practices in an organization operating in a particular cultural context. A culture of a people is a phenomenon that cannot be changed due to the fact that it has been with them for a long time and that they identify themselves with it. Culture in this respect gives one their